About Takashi Inoguchi
Councilor, The Japan Association of International Relations, 2011-present
Japan Public Policy Studies Association Award for the book:”The Genealogy of Theories on International Relations,” 2008
“An Essay on Dragonflies and Green Soybeans,” chosen for Recommendable Books for Summer Vacation in Year 2008 (Junior High School Category) by the School Library Research Section of the Shizuoka Prefecture Educational Research Committee
International Communication Foundation Merit Research Award for the survey “Asia Barometer,” 2007
Suntory Prize for Social Sciences and Humanities for the book: “International
Nominated, Best Dissertation Award, Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (Wars as International Learning, Department of Political Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1974)
Fields covered during the 35-year Research Career
In his 35-year professional career, Dr. Inoguchi has covered extensively from Political Theories, Comparative Politics, to International Politics. Especially he has exhibited his prominent research ability by making numerous publications and presentations in and out of Japan in the fields of East Asian International Politics, Japanese Politico-Economic Analyses, Asian Comparative Political System, Japanese Foreign Policy, International Relations Theories, and others.
Among his many accomplishments, Dr. Inoguchi has made great strides in empirical research of Japanese Politics, Comparative Politics, and International Politics. Between the two major approaches to political analyses: the Staatslehre Tradition and the Empirical Political Theoretic Tradition, he has followed the latter and has exerted strong leadership among the Japanese Political Science circles in the late 20th and the beginning of the 21st Century. Due to his prolific publication of books and articles both in Japanese and English, he is the most frequently cited Japanese scholar in the fields of Political Science and International Relations according to Google and Yahoo citation statistics
The following are the descriptions of his accomplishments in details;
1. Quantitative Analysis on East-Asian International Politics:
Dr. Inoguchi is a pioneer of adopting quantitative analysis in International Politics. With this innovative and dynamic approach, he proved that International Politics could be verified quantitatively by creating and testing a model with empirical data. This was a significant academic breakthrough in this field at the time when International Political Research was nothing more than a bickering between Realism advocates versus Idealism advocates largely through popular mass media. Through this method, he analyzed Communist party publications and proved how Communist Nations such as the Soviet Union, China, and North Korea formed alliances or adversely broke up in the 1960s. Furthermore, in the 1970s, when Japan-Soviet fishery negotiations were politically heating up, he successfully predicted the eventual agreed fish catch by using the Regression Equation and State Space Equation models well before the negotiation ended. In this way, he verified that there are some political milieus which are politically unaffected even between or among nations with severed diplomatic ties.
2. Japanese Politico-Economic Analysis
In general, Japanese Political Research used to focus on historical aspects. There was neither systematic nor empirical approach regarding the politico-economic movements. Under this situation, Dr. Inoguchi presented two hypotheses regarding the politico-economic relationships in Japan. The first hypothesis was that, during the period between World War II and the start of the Globalization, elections for the House of Representatives were carried out at the timing presumed to be favorable for the ruling party, which was actually linked to the business cycle. This was called the Political Surfing over the Economic Waves. The second hypothesis was that, after the end of World War II, because of the long rule under the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), voters who feared the ruling party’s excessive power, tended to rise as Buffer Voters to keep hold of the ruling party’s high-handedness. Related to this, he also proved the substantive role of the “Zoku Giin” (a kind of special-interest legislators) who, through platforms such as Policy Study Groups and Policy Subcommittees, have built strong legislative power while working side by side with bureaucrats, dexterously controlling the bureaucratic interference with politics.
3. Theories on Asian Comparative Political Culture
Until recently, empirical studies of Asian Political Culture have been very limited in spite of the much-publicized cultural diversities. Therefore, Dr. Inoguchi executed a 29-Asian-nation survey called the AsiaBarometer to examine and compare the political cultures. Through this survey, he made two important discoveries. Firstly, he found that, in a broad sense, Japanese Culture belongs to the Confucian Culture, yet in a qualitative sense, the core value of Japanese Culture is quite different from that of the present Confucian Culture. In Confucian Culture, parents tend to teach their offspring the three virtues: independence, diligence, and honesty. While in Japan, those three virtues are not emphasized much. Instead, the Japanese value tenderness and thoughtfulness. As a matter of fact, Confucianism originally preached benevolence and generosity. Therefore, we may say that the Japanese are loyal to the original Confucian virtues. Samuel Huntington was proved to be right in maintaining that Japanese civilization is qualitatively different from Chinese civilization. Secondly, the results of AsiaBarometer have also shown that Ronald Inglehart may be wrong in his claim, which he drew from his public-opinion poll conducted mostly in the western world, that Post-Materialism vs. Materialism as well as Post-Modernism vs. Modernism are the most crucial antithetic dichotomous dimensions of value. Instead, the results of AsiaBarometer shows that Post－Materialism is not directly related to per capita income. Here we can see the flaws of the western-centric values.
4. Theories on Comparative Japanese Political System
Laurence Whitehead argues that Switzerland, Sweden, and England are the societies which have endogenously promoted democratization. He furthers this discussion to include Japan as such society, observing her history. The Shogunate System in the Tokugawa Era based warrior-class-lead authoritarianism while financial independence and subjects’ inclusion into the political decision- making process were the pillars of the clan rule. The principle to include subjects into the policy-making system is considered to be the indications of democratization because it not only enabled to narrow the distance between those governing and those governed, but also enabled those governing to reach all-inclusive agreements among those governed. In this way, the early modern Japanese political system has shown fledgling democratic characteristics. The first characteristic is all-inclusiveness as the principle of this political system. The second is that the governing structure is too fragmented to hold a strong political leadership. The third is that the officialdom which was originated in the warrior class has turned out to be a pace-setter for the modern Japanese political system.
5. Theories on Japanese Foreign Policies
Japan is geographically located on the eastern edge of the Eurasia Continent across the sea. This physical condition has made Japan to have a tendency to be inward-looking. Or in some extreme cases, she had secluded herself from other nations. When dealing with the western side of the border where the Asian nations exist, Japan has tended to get involved with all sorts of problems with them. Whereas, once dealing with the eastern side of the border where the ocean lies wide, Japan has had to deal with the large seafaring nations over the free sail and free trade.
6. Theories on International Relations
From a global point of view, the world order can be summarized into three concepts, which are state sovereignty, people’s sovereignty, and lack of sovereignty. The three concepts are reflected respectively in the Westphalia, Philadelphian, and Anti-Utopian ideas. Dr. Inoguchi has developed his argument by examining the transitions from the 20th to the 21st century. He presented an international relations theory which adequately explains the expansion of space shared by normative values, whereas there is also another expansion of space which does not or can not be shared by the normative values. Furthermore, he elaborates on the evolution of the 21st century global system by looking back at a few hundred years of history, namely the aftermath of the golden ages in the Mongol Dynasty and the American Dynasty. He has tried to predict and theorize the international relations of the laｔtar part of the 21st century by comparing and examining the dynamics of the world order formed after the prime times of the two great empires.
More than 100 books published in Japanese (University of Tokyo Press, Iwanami Shoten Publishers, Chikumashobo, Toyo Keizai, Nikkei Publishing, Yuhikaku Publishers, NTT Publishing, etc.), English (Oxford University Press, Stanford University Press, United Nations University Press, Palgrave Macmillan, Routledge, Springer, etc.), Chinese, Korean, and Hungarian. Three books have been awarded.
Several hundreds of papers were published in either Japanese and/or English, 2920 search hits in Google Scholar (as of January 6th, 2012), 431 appearances in SSCI (as of Oct. 2009). Major journal articles have been published in world first-class academic journals such as International Organization, Behavioral Science, Journal of Conflict Resolution, Government and Opposition, Social Indicators Research, and Survival. In addition to English and Japanese, his articles were published in Korean, Indonesian, Chinese, French, Spanish, German, Russian and Italian.
Founder of Two English Language Journals
Japanese Journal of Political Science (Cambridge University Press)
Chief Editor of Seijigaku Jiten (Encyclopedia of Political Science, Kobundo) Chief Editor of Kokusai Seiji Jiten (Encyclopedia of International Politics, Kobundo), Deputy Editor of International Encyclopedia of Political Science (Sage Publications), Contributor to International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences (Elsevier 26 vol.s), Contributor to Tokeigaku Jiten (Encyclopedia of Statistics, Toyo Keizai Shinposha), Contributor to Shin-kyoikugaku Daijiten (New Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Pedagogy, Daiichihouki Shuppan)
Editor in Chief of 9 libraries
･President (2000-2002), Councilor (2012-present) of Japan Association of International Relations
Accomplishments as an Educator
Dr.Inoguchi taught Introductory Political Science to more than 10,000 students throughout his career at various universities such as University of Tokyo, Ochanomizu University, Sophia University, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Waseda University, University of Shimane Prefecture, and United Nations University.
Dr.Inoguchi has devoted himself to deepen the understanding of Japanese politics among Asian nations, and taught at Peking University, University of Delhi, National University of Singapore, Seoul National University, and Universitas Gadjah Mada.
Dr.Inoguchi has contributed to raise the educational standard of political science by taking the role of chief editor in the publication of “Contemporary Politics Library” (University of Tokyo Press), a highly acclaimed and widely used text of political science not only in Japan but also in China (Chinese translation).
Dr.Inoguchi has also encouraged young scholars of political science to contribute to the journals Leviathan, Studies on Japanese Politics, Japanese Journal of Political Science (Cambridge University Press), and International Relations of the Asia-Pacific (Oxford University Press),all of which he has served as editor in chief and brought improvement in the academic standards of the field.
As Chairman of Asian Consortium for Political Research, he has also contributed to the enhancement of the academic standards in East and South-East Asia through training the young scholars and expanding the academic network.
A Close-knit World-wide Network
Dr. Inoguchi has established his academic reputation by working energetically with scholars around the world. The following are some examples of his global academic activities;
Offices held in major international organizations:
Editorial and/or Advisory Positions:
Attended International Conferences:
･International Commission for Peace Research meeting, UNESCO, Chaired by Dr. H. Kissinger (Paris, Dec. 2004)
Appearances in International TV Broadcast:
CNN, BBC, NHK, CNBC, MBC etc.
Columns and Articles in International Newspapers and Magazines:
International Herald Tribune, Le Monde, Asian Wall Street Journal, Far Eastern Economic Review, The Economist, Times Higher Education Supplement, Quân dôi nhân dân
Entrepreneurship and Accomplishments
United Nations University Press (UNUP)
University Mobility in Asia and the Pacific (UMAP)
Asian Consortium for Political Research (ACPR)
Dr. Inoguchi is a pioneer in conducting an all-Asian survey focusing on the daily lives of ordinary people in East, South-east, South, and Central Asia. This survey has been well received among the media in Asia such as Asahi, Yomiuri, and Nikkei of Japan, as well as Joong Ang Daily and MBC (Munhwa Broadcasting Cooperation) of Korea, and Sunday Times of Sri Lanka. Furthermore, the English translation of AsiaBarometer report has been praised by top-rate scholars in the west. He received the International Communication Foundation Merit Research Award for this endeavor.
A Close Relationship with the Government and Society
■Member of Legislative Council of the Ministry of Justice (1999-present)
Hobbies and interests
Reading, swimming, walking, and parties, etc. Though it may overlap his occupation, Dr. Inoguchi likes writing. His motto is “Scribo, ergo sum”, which is punned for Descartes’ words, “Cogito, ergo sum (I think, therefore I am)”.
Dr. Inoguchi had learned English, German, French, Russian, Chinese, and Korean during his undergraduate days, but now the language he occupationally and fully uses is only English. Chinese and Korean are sometimes used at verbal presentation. After being a president of the University, he uses Chinese, Korean, and Russian for brief greetings at the various gatherings. He had also dabbled at Vietnamese and Indonesian, but dropped by the wayside in the early stage.
Dr. Inoguchi has appeared in both Who’s Who in the World, and Who’s Who in America (Marquis edition) for twenty years, which introduce the world leading professionals’ profile.